Friday, January 1, 2021

How To Replace 1976 Corvette C3 Thermostat

My Corvette's water temp gauge started acting up (again), by getting close to the red line and then settling back down to about 210° F which is the normal operating temperature for my L-48 engine.

This occurrence is not new. As matter of fact, I've learned to live with it since it happened seldomly, until recently. In the past, the needle would get close to the Water Temp gauge's "warning zone," but it never reached the red line, until yesterday.


Actually, the water temp needle went all the way to 280° which scared the bejesus outta me since I was quite a ways from home. Scary images of hoses bursting under pressure and having my beloved Vette towed home again flashed across my mind.

Luckily, it went back to normal operating temperature pretty fast and my Corvette made it safely back home under its own power.

So one of several things could be failing here:

  1. The water temperature gauge
  2. The temperature sender
  3. The thermostat
  4. The fan clutch
  5. The water pump.
Since I do not have the know-how to properly test any of these components, I opted for the "replace until it's fixed" approach, and this means the first item to be replaced will be the thermostat. Which is also the cheapest one of the ones listed above.

Alternatively, there's another possibility, albeit a remote one at best, and that is an "air pocket" in the cooling system, so I will also burp it with a funnel created specifically for that purpose.

I am not concerned about this being caused by a wiring issue since I recently replaced both harnesses under the hood. And while the original dashboard wiring is still in service, it is unlikely to be the culprit. 


When I had the motor rebuilt, they installed a 180° thermostat as I discovered once I removed the waterneck, which as shown below, is not the right one for a 1976 Corvette with the L-48 engine.

The Haynes manual for 1968-1982 Corvettes, calls for the following:
  • 1968-1974 (Engines with AIR System) ..... 195° F
  • 1968-1974 (Others) ..... 180° F
  • 1975-on (with Optional L-82 Engine) ..... 180° F
  • 1975-on (with Standard L-48 Engine) ..... 195° F

The purpose of the thermostat is to quickly heat the engine coolant to the minimum operating temperature and keep it there. So, contrary to popular belief, a thermostat does not cool the engine.

Cooling the engine and keeping it at optimal operating temperature is the job of the radiator, fan, and water pump. 

And even though the normal operating temperature range may rest between 190° and 220° Fahrenheit, the thermostat's job is to keep the engine warm by determining a baseline or lower limit. In the case of my L-48 Corvette, that number is 195° F.

The idea that an engine operates better when it runs cool is totally flawed. Engines run and perform optimally when they operate at the ideal temperature. 

My goal is not to have my Vette's engine run cool but, rather, at the right temperature.

The torque for the thermostat housing bolts is 20 ft. lbs. for 1968-1977 and 30 ft. lbs. for 1978-on. I use the terms "thermostat housing" and "waterneck" interchangeably by the way.

Above: Specs from the Haynes 1968-1982 Corvette manual. Yellow highlights are mine.

REMOVING THE THERMOSTAT

First and foremost, you want to work on a cold engine. If I have to explain why that is, then maybe you should allow a professional mechanic to do the job for you.

If the thermostat housing has been on for a long time, the chances of snapping one of the bolts are stacked against you, and the best approach is to allow them to soak well in penetrating fluid for several hours (or days, depending on how bad they look). Galvanic corrosion is real, so don't take any chances.

And whether you remove the waterneck hose first or last is irrelevant. The goal here is to break the thermostat housing free from the intake manifold. But keep in mind that hoses also "weld" themselves to metal components, so prioritize removal as needed, especially if there's enough corrosion to require you to install a new waterneck.

The Dorman thermostat housing (above) also gives you the option to relocate the temperature sending unit, if necessary. It also includes NPT plugs as shown, as well as a new gasket.

Personally, I prefer a gasket instead of the O-rings available with many aftermarket waternecks. You can also paint this type of housing to match your engine if so desired. Chrome units look okay, but only for a brief time.

When it comes to thermostats, the options seem almost endless but I have had excellent luck with Stant thermostats, so I ordered the Stant SuperStat 195° thermostat (Part No. 45359).

As you search for a replacement part, you may hear terms such as High-Flow and Racing associated with thermostats, as well as "restrictor plate."

Honestly, I have no idea if they're better for a C3 Corvette, but if they were I am sure the engineers who designed these vehicles would've used something like that. But they didn't and neither will I.

If you have not drained the coolant, (you don't really need to), have rags and a bucket or catch pan of some sort under the car in case some coolant spills.

As the video below shows, I like to place a bath towel near the waterneck area. By the way, bath towels are inexpensive and they're also great as fender covers.

A word of caution!

If you have pets, coolant and antifreeze contain ethylene glycol which is highly toxic and deadly to cats and dogs, so make sure you take all necessary precautions if your dog or cat will be hanging out in the garage when you remove the waterneck and spill coolant all over the floor.


As the video above shows, I did not spill one drop when I removed the upper hose since there was no coolant in the hose.

I started by removing the air cleaner assembly, including the flex duct, to have as much room as possible. I also disconnected the PCV valve and vacuum advance hoses from the carburetor (blue arrows below) and moved them out of the way.


I keep a bunch of bath towels handy and surrounded the waterneck area with a couple to prevent coolant from splashing all over the engine. Something that surprisingly, did not happen.


I decided to disconnect the upper hose from the waterneck, which is a lot easier with the waterneck bolted to the intake manifold.


And this is the manifold flange where the thermostat sits along with a gasket and the waterneck itself.


I inspected the parts I removed that I was planning to reuse. I decided to sand and paint the waterneck and also replace the old bolts with grade-8 bolts and washers.


I prefer the factory, cast-metal waternecks versus the flimsy chrome aftermarket ones available at auto parts stores which tend to rust very quickly and start looking awful after just a few months.

My Corvette's waterneck was showing its age but was, otherwise, in great, clean condition.


My Corvette had a 180° unit which I will be replacing with the factory-recommended 195° thermostat for the L-48 engine.



With the thermostat and most of the old gasket out of the way, I scraped the flange with a razor blade to remove any remnants of the gasket. I also cleaned the ledge where the thermostat sits.


Since the original housing had some scratches and pitting from corrosion (this is a 40+-year-old part), I gave it a good sanding and a coat of glazing putty.


Here's the housing after a final sanding ready to be primed and painted.


The photo below shows the finished product after a couple of coats of Chevy Orange engine paint. It looks great and ready for another 40-plus years of service.



INSTALLING A NEW THERMOSTAT

Installation of the new thermostat is, in essence, the process of removing the old one in reverse, and the video below shows you all the necessary steps.


However, my gut was wrong since the new thermostat did not resolve the erratic water temp gauge readings. So the next item I will replace is the coolant temperature sender and I hope that will fix my Corvette's overheating problem.

Stay tuned, and thank you for following my '76 Vette Blog!






No comments:

Post a Comment

Please share your thoughts.